The Leeds-born left-back, 20, who has signed a three-year contract after the clubs agreed an undisclosed fee, had a spell on loan with Carlisle this season but made only two appearances due to a knee injury.
Hull manager Nigel Pearson said: "Joe is another very promising young player and I think he'll be a very good acquisition for us.
"He's been schooled at an outstanding club. For us, it is about trying to get the right players in, not just in terms of the football side of it, but also in terms of their own mentality."
Meanwhile, goalkeeper Matt Duke, striker Craig Fagan, defender Anthony Gardner and midfielder Tijani Belaid have all been released by the Tigers.