The 22-year-old left-sided player has previously had loans with Port Vale, Mansfield and Rochdale.
"He brings something a bit different. He has that bit of pace, he is cute and clever," said manager Ronnie Moore.
"He should get himself more goals and we are pleased to have him here until the end of the season"
Atkinson scored his first goal for Rotherham in the 5-0 thrashing of Port Vale on New Year's Day.
Source: BBC Sport